Iraqi Journal For Economic Sciences <p><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="0" data-number-of-phrases="3">A specialized, refereed quarterly magazine issued by</span> <span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="2" data-number-of-phrases="3">The College of Administration and Economics at Al-Mustansiriya University is concerned with economic sciences in all its specializations</span></span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> قسم الاقتصاد - كلية الادارة والاقتصاد en-US Iraqi Journal For Economic Sciences 1812-8742 The Spatial Container Of Economic Activity; The Dialectic Of The Relationship & Development Mechanisms <p>The increase in social disparities, the depletion of natural resources, and the emergence of poverty, unemployment, and illiteracy are all indications of the failure to achieve the goals of economic development in many developing countries, which have long been working to follow imported models from developed countries that naturally differ from their development capabilities; economic and social ones. In fact, development is a phenomenon whose dimensions are more than just an economic and social phenomenon, but also includes its spatial dimensions, which require the study of multiple aspects of the geography of the region in which the state wants to improve the economic and social conditions, which requires understanding and understanding the elements of the place and the existing and latent mechanisms of interaction with each other towards achieving the desired development. As important as that is, the matter is not limited to the spatial space as much as it is also related to the economic relations of activities and activities outside that space with its geographical boundaries, and what supports the trends of growth and development in various interpretations from the theory of central place to the poles of growth to the theory of spatial interaction. Therefore, it is necessary to understand and comprehend the movement of the production elements in their spatial scope (location) and the extents of influence and mutual influence in their economic space (location) ineffective and effective economic relations in a just and effective manner in achieving development goals and economic diversification and alleviating poverty and unemployment while acknowledging the economic and social aspirations of the population that space and thus build more productive and competitive economies.</p> Dr. Kamel Kazem. Al_Kenany Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-16 2022-07-16 20 73 8 22 The philosophy of the relationship between savings and sustainable economic violence - Iraqi Kurdistan as a model: a philosophical theoretical study <p>If violence takes many forms, such as physical, psychological, and sexual violence, and has serious repercussions in society, there is another type of violence that is no less dangerous than the other types, which is economic violence and sustainable economic violence. Although this type of violence is the outcome of savings, compulsory deduction in salaries, delay in distributing salaries, stopping promotion, and job promotion in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, the petition and addressing this issue and studying the relationship between saving and sustainable economic violence amounts to nothingness. In light of the foregoing, this research came to analyze the philosophy of the relationship between saving and sustainable economic violence, and through the findings of the research, it appeared that compulsory saving is a form of economic violence, and economic violence in the Kurdistan Region - Iraq not only increased but continued as an inevitable result. Compulsory savings and deductions, the delay in distributing salaries, and stopping promotion and job promotion have a clear impact on the sustainability of economic violence in the Kurdistan Region - Iraq, and in conclusion, the research recommended a set of important policies and recommendations to deter and limit sustainable economic violence in the long term, and Including the financial sustainability of the region and the sustainable management of the region’s economy, adopting policies to reduce sustainable economic violence in the short term at the level of the executive authority through the removal of compulsory savings, opening a bank account for employees and requesting loans from the federal government. At the legislative level: the salaries saved as loans owed by the government must be regulated. On the other hand, and at the level of civil society organizations, these organizations should pressure the government through legal and democratic procedures. At the level of universities and academic centers: The role of thinkers and specialists in economic violence is limited to presenting the paths of economic violence and contributing to the accuracy of diagnosing the type and dimensions of the problems of economic violence in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.</p> Dr.Ayub A.Hamad smaqae Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 20 73 23 37 Sustainable Empowerment of Iraqi universities to enhance their role in facing crises <p>As it is known, universities are a center for cultural and intellectual radiation. They have become the focus of hopes for a qualitative shift in society because they have features that distinguish them from other institutions as they are multi-objective and multi-functional, as well as an educational institution located at the top of the educational pyramid.</p> <p>Given this importance, work must be done to enable it to play its effective role in the development process in all economic, social, and administrative fields, and it is necessary to find means to help it in facing various challenges and crises and to create non-traditional funding sources that can have an impact on the quality of education and scientific research.</p> <p>Accordingly, this research sheds light on sustainable empowerment in terms of concepts, methods, and others, and its possible ways for Iraqi universities to enhance and develop their capabilities to confront the multiplicity and development of crises.</p> Showket Dr.Nidhal Shaker Jouda أ. م. د .ستار جابر عمران Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 20 73 38 54 The importance of legislation and laws in supporting tourism development: An exploratory study of the opinions of a sample of managers in the Ministry of Culture, Tourism, and Antiquities <p>It highlights the role of laws and legislation in maintaining the sustainability of the tourism sector by keeping pace with the legislative developments witnessed by the developed countries in the field of tourism, and the success of ways to cooperate with them in order to strengthen local and international agreements in order to organize the tourism work in all its main sectors in line with developments in the industry Tourism and the volume of tourist movement in it, as well as workers in the tourism sector. Hence our research came to shed light on the effectiveness of tourism laws and legislation and their importance in the development of the tourism sector in Iraq. To compensate for the structural imbalance in the Iraqi economy, it is a unilateral economy. One of the most important recommendations is to activate all legislations and laws that support and encourage tourism development projects in Iraq.</p> م. د غنية ضياء مشفي Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 20 73 55 75 The role of the hotel industry in generating job opportunities Analytical study on the reality of Iraqi hotels for the period 2003-2013 <p>The role of the hotel industry in generating job opportunities (analytical study on the reality of Iraqi hotels for the period 2002-2013). The thesis aims to identify the concept of the hotel industry and its classification, as well as to show the impact of the tourism sector in generating job opportunities in tourist countries and types of employment, and to provide evidence-based on government-approved data to prove the research hypothesis that the hotel industry has a positive impact in generating job opportunities. Iraqi hotels and their contribution to providing job opportunities during the research period (2002-2013). The researcher has reached important conclusions through the results of the research, including that the hotel sector is globally characterized by a superior ability to generate more job opportunities than the main tourism sectors compared to tourism companies. The number of workers increases with the upgrading of the hotel classification according to the different levels of first-class hotel services, which require different skill levels with the workers and at different administrative and executive levels in proportion to the level and quality of the services provided by them compared to the lower-grade hotels. As for the results of the analytical side, the researcher found that the private hotel sector is one of the most accommodating sectors of the workforce, providing (73.1%) of the total job opportunities, and the mixed sector was able to provide (17%) of the total opportunities, while the public sector was able to provide 9.9% of the total job opportunities. Consequently, the researcher recommended working on spreading tourism awareness in the Iraqi society towards workers in the tourism sector in general and the hotel sector in particular and strengthening the role of women in tourism work. As well as the interest in providing accurate and organized statistics for the workforce in the tourism sector in general and in all its branches in Iraq (residence, travel companies, restaurants, clubs, cafes...etc.) because of its importance in scientific studies and for the development of the hotel industry in Iraq.</p> Ahmed mageed hameed Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 20 73 76 90 Estimates of the Impact of COVID-19 on World Poverty in 2020 <p>In this study we have sought to make estimates of the potential short-term poverty impact of COVID-19 in selected countries. While these estimates have important limitations as they are based on distribution neutral assumptions and crucially omit, social and fiscal policy, and household-level responses to economic contractions, they are intended as indicative of the potential increase in poverty as a result of the damaging economic consequences of the pandemic. The study concludes that there is a negative relationship between economic growth and poverty in the short run, where if economic growth changes by one unit, poverty decreases by (4.08). This is a logical result in light of the COVID-19 epidemic. As for the other variables, such as the unemployment rate and inflation, their effect was positive, Also, the&nbsp; main variable of Confirmed cases with the virus to population, its impact was negative in the long run, while in the short run the impact is positive as stated in the economic theory, and this was expected in the research hypothesis, where the number of people infected with the virus increase, the poverty in the world increase in the same direction.</p> Dr. Zaki Hussein Qader Dr. Twana Fadhil Salih Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 20 73 91 105 Analyzing Credit Risk Management in Commercial Banks: An Exploratory Research about the Opinions of a Sample of Managers and heads of departments in selected commercial banks in Erbil City (2021 <p>Banks are vital to any healthy economy due to their crucial role in society. Nowadays, they provide a wide range of services and products. Their principal function is to transfer surpluses into deficit units by taking deposits from the community and giving them back to the community through lending (Paddy, 2012) as providers of financial resources and information to the economy. They even play a more critical function in developing economies. Borrowers, "individuals and businesses," have no easy access to capital markets. Therefore, well-functioning commercial banks accelerate economic growth, while poorly functioning ones hinder economic development and thus increase poverty (Muye and Muye, 2017).</p> <p>Lending is one of the principal types of banking activity, which is essential for meeting the ever-growing consumer needs and taking part in the production and socio-economic development of the country. Various forms and types of banking credits demonstrate that lending is the core of banking as a source of profit, while there is a constant demand from individuals and business entities (Yanenkova et al., 2021).</p> <p>On the other hand, these banks face different risks that need intervention with various protection ways to decrease these risks. Risk management (RM) is the procedure for identifying, monitoring, and measuring risk (Spucháková &amp; Adamko 2015). One of these risks is CR, which these banks face due to lending and credit processes. CR is associated with the businesses of financial institutions as the financial position of a borrower deteriorates (Afriyie et al., 2018). Banks have developed credit scoring models to improve evaluating creditworthiness process during the credit evaluation process to reduce CR and promote lending quality (Paddy, 2012).</p> Dr. Sangar Sarbast Qasim Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Anwar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 20 73 106 125 Analysis of the determinants of foreign labor preference in small industrial enterprises and middle schools in Erbil governorate: applied study for the year 2021 <p>This study aims to present the determinants of foreign labor preference and to show its types in small and medium industrial enterprises in the Erbil governorate. The research reached a set of conclusions, including:</p> <ul> <li>There is a commitment to work and accuracy on the part of foreign workers compared to local workers because most foreign workers do not accompany their families, and therefore it is easier for them to commit to work. The end result reflected negatively on local employment and led to an increase in unemployment, especially among the youth in the Erbil governorate.</li> <li>There is an increase in the skill of foreign workers compared to local workers, although most of them have previous experience in the work of those small and medium industrial projects in the governorate of Erbil.</li> <li>There is a decrease in the wages of foreign workers compared to the wages of local workers because the wages of foreign workers are linked to the exchange rates of the Iraqi dinar to a degree when it is converted into the currency of the foreign country, it constitutes a large amount. The summary of the research presented a number of proposals, including:</li> <li>Elimination of informal small industrial projects in Erbil governorate by the Syrians, which negatively affected the activity of official small industrial projects in Erbil governorate.</li> <li>Working on enacting a special law related to foreign labor by the National Assembly (Parliament) to address the random migration of foreign labor to the Kurdistan Region - Iraq.</li> <li>It is the responsibility of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry to work to protect small and medium industrial enterprises from competing with imported foreign goods, whether through customs taxes or by providing the necessary support for such projects.</li> </ul> Abbas Hayas Abbas Kakhiyeh Dr.Sardar Othman Badawey Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 20 73 126 149 The economic importance of the establishment of the Great Port of Faw and its connection with the Belt and Road Initiative <p>Iraq has a single sea port on the Arabian Gulf. Four commercial ports and two oil ports have been established on it. Despite the small Iraqi coastline on the Gulf, which does not exceed 60 km, which is the smallest area among the Gulf countries, this small area represents the maritime port of Iraq on the high seas. And if it was properly exploited, it would have great returns on the economy. Iraq has an important strategic position in shortening the distances between East and West. And if Iraq wants to catch up with global developments, especially in the field of maritime transport and the establishment of modern and advanced ports, it must expedite the establishment of the great port of Faw, as Iraq’s possession of important commercial ports, but these ports do not meet Iraq’s growing needs, as they are internal ports of limited depths and directly overlook On the Arabian Gulf, as well as in the event that Iraq is linked to the Belt and Road Initiative and is ready to exercise its vital role in linking the Asian East and the European West, from the ports of the Arabian Gulf to the ports of the Mediterranean. This necessitates accelerating the completion of the Grand Faw port project due to its importance in transporting trade and considering it the gateway that moves the wheel of economic development and the great economic benefits that will come to it through the establishment of the dry canal, which shortens the time and cost in transporting global trade.</p> Amjad Radhi Hassan Dr.Hamdiya Shaker Muslim Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 20 73 150 163 The historical background of the economic reform policies in Iraq and its developmental dimensions <p>Over the past four decades (1980-2020), Iraq has pursued a series of reform attempts that did not find a way to escape, and it was between ebb and flow and failure to draw the features and borders of its shores, blaming the ship's navigator at times and other times, cursing the sea winds, so it was necessary to follow the policies of economic reform in Iraq Through what was planned, what was implemented and measuring the achievement gap, the importance of this lies in order to identify the reasons for the failure of these policies and their failure to reach their final goals and what are the proposed mechanisms to complete the reform process and what are the real motives for calls for reform, so the research addressed two axes:</p> <p>The first axis: the essential features of the Iraqi economy The second axis: the development of underdevelopment in Iraq through historical stages, To then reach a number of conclusions and recommendations, identifying the reasons and causes that prevent the advancement of the Iraqi economy and its recovery from its fragile reality.</p> Zainab Ahmad Abed Dr .Abdul Zahra Faisal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-22 2022-07-22 20 73 164 181 The phenomenon of commercial dumping and its impact on local investment in Iraq after 2003 <p>The absence of laws regulating import and export and the apparent weakness in the control of imported goods will contribute to the emergence of the phenomenon of dumping in it, which will negatively affect investments in the countries where dumping is practiced, as it becomes an unsuitable environment for investment due to the lack of protection for local and foreign capital, and as what happened in Iraq after 2003, the doors of the borders were opened wide for the entry of various types of goods and products from different countries of the world into the Iraqi market because this market is characterized by a great thirst for goods and products as a result of the economic blockade that lasted for more than twelve years, as this policy was unplanned the significant impact on the Iraqi economy in its multiple aspects, as it contributed to the decline of the industrial sector due to the inequality between local and imported goods, in addition to that, the decline of the agricultural sector, and thus investment became not possible in the absence of control and restrictions on imported goods and in light of administrative corruption and security instability All of this negatively affected investment in Iraq, especially after the market was flooded with a huge amount of poor and low-priced imported goods, and what resulted in these factors are an increase in unemployment rates, which are increasing year after year.</p> Muntather Mahdi Salih Dr. Abeer Mohammad Jassim Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 20 73 182 198 The effect of deposit guarantee in reducing financial default - the Iraqi Deposit Insurance Company as a model <p>Bank deposit insurance companies have become one of the most important mechanisms for dealing with financial insolvency, as this research deals with the role played by these companies to protect depositors’ money and protect banks from financial insolvency, through a questionnaire submitted to a sample of commercial banks operating in Iraq, where a set of conclusions was reached. The most important of which is that the deposit guarantee system seeks to restore confidence in the banking system and achieve financial stability, thus enhancing the important role provided by the financial authorities in the country, and reducing risks, especially those risks that cannot be avoided, whether political or economic. About financial stability, it is necessary to strengthen the banking supervision activity and to put in place special devices that monitor the work of banks to avoid risks, especially the moral (moral) risks that may arise with the existence of the deposit guarantee system.</p> Nada Abdul Salam Abdul Razzaq Dr. Maytham l. Ismael Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 20 73 199 226 The impact of monetary policy on achieving monetary stability in Iraq - an analytical study for the period 2004-2020 <p>The Iraqi economy faces many economic crises, which negatively affect the monetary stability of Iraq. The research aims to know the impact of the tools and indicators of monetary policies in achieving monetary stability, and any of these tools that have the greatest impact in achieving the goal of monetary stability, and to reduce efforts made by those responsible for setting the&nbsp; policy to achieve the best results and to enable them to develop plans that have a greater impact on the economy. The importance of research stems from the importance of monetary stability and the positive or negative effects it causes on the economy.</p> <p>It became clear through what was mentioned in the research the weak impact of monetary policies in reaching the goal of monetary stability for Iraq in light of the fluctuations and fluctuations occurring in the tools and indicators of each of the policy. However, money supply as an indicator of monetary policy, it was noted that, besides the exchange rate, they have the greatest impact in the field of monetary stability.</p> Aya Alaa Aldeen Abdulhadi Dr. Subhi Hassoon Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 20 73 227 245 Analysis of the inputs and outputs of the activity of Islamic banks in Iraq for the duration (2018-2019) <p>This research aims to analyze the inputs and outputs of Islamic banks in Iraq during the two years (2018-2019). As for the methodology adopted by the research, it is represented by the descriptive approach to these indicators in terms of their values ​​and market shares. And since Islamic banks have investments based on property rights, this enhances their efficiency and not being exposed to risks during crises, and thus Islamic banks are more attractive to investing individuals and institutions. The research found that the banks of the research sample varied in these indicators (outputs and inputs) during the two research years, but the Iraqi Islamic Bank had priority in the values ​​of (asset returns, deposits, work, and capital), which confirms the quality of performance and effectiveness of management and its ability to deal with customers, which reflects positively on its productivity compared to other sample banks. The study recommends the necessity of carrying out reforms related to the digitization of Islamic banking in response to the transformation taking place in the banking industry to be able to withstand and maintain stability in the financial system in Iraq.</p> Jawad Abdul-Kadhim Darb Dr.Abdulkareem Abdullah Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 20 73 246 272 علاقة ادارة الازمات المصرفية بالسمعة المؤسسية دراسة استطلاعيةلعينة من المصارف العراقية <p>The research aims to identify the extent to which crisis management strategies are used in several Iraqi banks and to reveal the correlation between each variable of banking crisis management and institutional reputation. To achieve the objectives of the research, a hypothesis was built to determine the nature of the relationship between the independent variable represented in banking crises management and its dimensions (work teams, preventive reserve, diversion, crisis unloading, crisis fragmentation) and the approved variable represented by institutional reputation and its dimensions (financial performance, creativity, social responsibility, and service quality), and to identify the nature of the relationship between the variables, the study adopted the main hypothesis and several sub-hypotheses emanating from it. To test its hypotheses, it was applied to a sample of private Iraqi banks to obtain the necessary information through a questionnaire form prepared for this purpose and was reinforced with personal interviews. The questionnaire was distributed to a sample of (8) private banks, namely (Mosul, Ashur International, Al-Mansour, Baghdad, Al-Muttahed, Al-Iktissad, across Iraq, Sumer) and (93) people from the occupants of the following sites (delegated director, deputy director delegate, heads of departments and their assistants, heads of people) through an intentional sample. The research adopted the descriptive-analytical method, and the researcher used the (Likert five-point) scale in the questionnaire, which was considered a main tool for the research, and he used a set of advanced statistical methods to reach the related results according to the (Spss v.23) program.</p> <p>The research reached a set of results, the most important of which is (that there is a significant correlation between banking crisis management and institutional reputation).</p> Sajjad Saeed Yassin Dr. Amal Mahmoud Ali Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 20 73 273 295